According to Beer the following characteristics are essential for any social, economic , industrial management system to ensure viability:
- The ability to grow (maximize potential)
- The ability to renew
- Ability to ensure robustness against internal breakdown and error
- Ability to continuously adapt in a changing environment and ability to survive under unexpected conditions
- The ability to learn from repeated experience and ensure optimum response to the stimuli
- The ability to maintain systemic equilibrium via multi communication connections with the environment
The Viable System Model (VSM) of Beer is an approach of Organizational Cybernetics that aims aims at the design and diagnosis of complex organization. By applying this approach weakness of structure , function, communication and interaction can be easily revealed and adaptation initiatives realized to maintain viability. According to VSM organizational system shall have normative, strategic, auditing, coordinating, operative management and alarming functions that operate and interact in order to maintain organizational viability.